Near Surface - Unconventionals

Satellite InSAR Data: Reservoir Monitoring from Space

 

Instructor

  Dr Alessandro Ferretti (Tele-Rilevamento Europa (TRE), Milan, Italy)

Duration

  1 day

Disciplines

  Engineering – Airborne Exploration

Level

  Foundation

Language

  English

Course book

   The EET 9 book is available in the EAGE Bookshop

EurGeol

  5 CPD points

Keywords

 
 DEFORMATION   DISPLACEMENT   GPS   INTERFEROMETRY   REMOTE SENSING   SENSORS   SEQUESTRATION   TIME‑LAPSE 

 

This course is also offered as EET 9

 

Introduction video

A short version of this course has been recorded as an E-Lecture. Watching this video will give you a clear introduction of what the course is about and it will help you to prepare yourself if you are going to attend it!

Learn more about EAGE E-Lectures

 

Course description

The EET 9 book by Dr Alessandro Ferretti

Satellite radar data for surface deformation monitoring are gaining increasing attention and not only within the oil and gas community. They provide a powerful tool for remotely measuring extremely small surface displacements over large areas and long periods of time, without requiring the installation of in-situ equipment. However, apart from remote sensing and radar specialists, only a relatively small number of geoscientists and engineers understand how a radar sensor orbiting the Earth at about 7 km/s from 700km above the Earth's surface can actually measure ground displacements of a fraction of a centimetre.

This course provides a step-by-step introduction to satellite radar sensors, SAR imagery, SAR interferometry and advanced InSAR techniques. Rather than a tutorial for remote sensing specialists, the course starts from very basic concepts and explains in plain language the most important ideas related to SAR data processing and why geoscientists and engineers should take a vested interest in this new information source.

Instead of providing a thorough analysis of InSAR algorithms, the main aim of the course is to diffuse the news about the potential impact of InSAR results on many real-life applications, highlighting where and when they can provide effective solutions. Participants will learn that InSAR is not only an information source for research and development activities, but also a reliable tool that can be applied successfully to many different applications, spanning from sinkhole detection to reservoir optimization.

Special attention is paid to oil and gas applications where surface deformation data can provide valuable constraints on reservoir dynamics, enabling time-lapse monitoring of volumetric strains at depth. Volume changes in the reservoir induced by fluid extraction and injection can induce both subsidence and uplift. Stress changes may then trigger the reactivation of faults and threaten well integrity. Depending on the depth of the reservoir and the characteristics of the cap rock, deformation may also be detectable at the surface.

After demonstrating case studies focusing on secondary and tertiary oil recovery, Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) and Underground Gas Storage (UGS), the course describes the available historical archives of SAR images, allowing, even if not at full worldwide coverage, the estimation of surface deformation phenomena since 1992. The course concludes with a brief discussion of the new satellite sensors to be launched in the next few years and the new trends in data integration and visualization.

 

Course objectives

Upon completion of the course, participants will be able to:

  • understand the key interest of InSAR for geoscientists and engineers;
  • understand the basic concepts behind Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) sensors;
  • appreciate the main differences between SAR and optical images;
  • understand the basic data requirements, assumptions, limitations and applicability of SAR interferometry (InSAR);
  • discover advantages and limitations of advanced InSAR techniques for estimating sub-centimetre surface deformation phenomena from space;
  • realize why InSAR data are becoming a standard tool for surface deformation monitoring;
  • compare InSAR data with in situ measurements, such as: GPS and tiltmeters;
  • understand how surface deformation can be related to geophysical parameters at depth;
  • see how InSAR data are an effective tool for monitoring subsidence phenomena;
  • understand the importance of surface deformation monitoring in Cabon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) and Underground Gas Storage (UGS) projects;
  • understand why InSAR data can be used as a cost-effective tool for reservoir management, as well as a risk mitigation tool;
  • start thinking about future applications of satellite radar data, possibly in synergy with other in-situ observations.

 

Course outline

  1. Introduction: why are satellite radar data relevant?
  2. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) sensors: acquisition geometry and image formation.
  3. Measuring range variations: the magic of SAR interferometry (InSAR).
  4. A tool for digital elevation model reconstruction and surface deformation analysis.
  5. Advanced InSAR techniques: from qualitative to quantitative data.
  6. From surface deformation to volume and pressure changes at depth.
  7. Overview of possible applications: subsidence monitoring, fault characterization, calibration of geological models, reservoir monitoring.
  8. Time-lapse data for Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS), Underground Gas Storage (UGS), secondary and tertiary (EOR) oil recovery projects.
  9. Available data sources and historical archives of SAR data. A quick overview of other InSAR applications.
  10. Summary and future trends.

 

Participants' profile

The course is designed for anyone who would like to understand how satellite sensors can measure surface displacements to a fraction of a centimetre from space. It is not a course for radar specialists. Reservoir engineers, geophysicists, geodesists, geologists should all be interested in this new tool for surface deformation monitoring that is becoming more and more a standard. Radar data are still largely unknown but their impact on oil & gas and civil protection applications can be huge.

 

Prerequisites

Rather than a strong background in remote sensing, geophysics and calculus, curiosity is probably the most important prerequisite. The course can be understood by geoscientists and engineers with a moderate mathematical background.

 

About the instructor

Dr Alessandro Ferretti

Alessandro Ferretti graduated in electronic engineering in 1993 at the Politecnico di Milano (POLIMI). He then received his MSc in information technology from CEFRIEL (1994) and his PhD in electrical engineering from POLIMI (1997). Since 1994 his research efforts have been focused on radar data processing, SAR interferometry and the use of remote sensing information for oil&gas and Civil Protection applications. He is co-inventor of the “Permanent Scatterer Technique” (PSInSAR™) and its advanced version: SqueeSAR™, a technology providing millimetre accuracy surface deformation measurements from satellite radar data.

In 2000 he founded the company “Tele-Rilevamento Europa” (TRE), offering high-quality surface deformation data for many different applications, from oil/gas reservoir surveillance, to landslide monitoring. Since 2008, he has been acting as Chairman of the Board of TRE Canada Inc. In June 2012, Alessandro Ferretti, together with Prof. Fabio Rocca, was awarded the “ENI Award 2012” for the potential impact of the PSInSAR™ technology on the oil&gas sector. TRE is now TRE ALTAMIRA, after the integration with Altamira Information in 2016. Alessandro Ferretti is currently CEO of the TRE ALTAMIRA group, having offices in Milan, Barcelona and Vancouver (BC). He coauthored more than 100 technical publications in international journals.

 

                    Learning Geoscience Logo

 

Explore other courses under this discipline:

 

Exploring with Airborne Gravity Gradiometry

Instructor: Dr Asbjørn Nørlund Christensen (Nordic Geoscience)

In the past fifteen years airborne gravity gradiometry (AGG) has gained acceptance as a cost effective exploration tool in a variety of minerals and petroleum exploration programs. This one-day course is intended for all explorers considering using AGG in their exploration efforts.

More information

Gravity and Magnetic Methods for Oil & Gas and Mineral Exploration and Production

Instructor: Dr Yaoguo Li (Colorado School of Mines)

Gravity and magnetic data are among the oldest geophysical data acquired for the purpose of resource exploration and exploitation. They currently also have the widest areal coverage on the Earth, span a great range of scales, and play important roles in mineral, energy, and groundwater arenas. This course will focus on the methodology, numerical computation, solution strategy, and applications of 3D physical property inversions of gravity and magnetic data sets. The course is designed to have two tracks in order to meet the different needs of EAGE community in mineral exploration and in oil & gas exploration and production. We achieve this by dividing the course into two parts, and cover the methodologies common in potential-field methods in Part-I and discuss tools and applications specific to mineral exploration or oil & gas reservoir monitoring in Part-II.

More information

Overview of EM Methods with a Focus on the Multi-Transient Electromagnetic (MTEM) Method

Instructor: Dr Bruce Hobbs (University of Edinburgh)

Following a brief summary of electromagnetic methods for exploration, the theoretical basis of the MTEM method is presented together with practical methods of data acquisition and processing. Modelling and inversion for this method are described and land and marine case studies are presented.

More information

Satellite InSAR Data: Reservoir Monitoring from Space

Instructor: Dr Alessandro Ferretti (Tele-Rilevamento Europa (TRE))

Satellite radar data for surface deformation monitoring are gaining increasing attention, and not only within the oil and gas community. They provide a powerful tool for remotely measuring extremely small surface displacements over large areas and long periods of time, without requiring the installation of in-situ equipment. However, apart from remote sensing and radar specialists, only a relatively small number of geoscientists and engineers understand how a radar sensor orbiting the Earth at about 7 km/s from 700km above the Earth's surface can actually measure ground displacements of a fraction of a centimetre. This course provides a step-by-step introduction to satellite radar sensors, SAR imagery, SAR interferometry and advanced InSAR techniques. Rather than a tutorial for remote sensing specialists, the course starts from very basic concepts and explain in plain language the most important ideas related to SAR data processing and why geoscientists and engineers should take a vested interest in this new information source.

More information

The Use of Surface Waves for Near Surface Velocity Model Building

Instructor: Dr Laura Valentina Socco (Politecnico di Torino)

The use of surface wave analysis for near surface characterisation has dramatically increased in the last decade thanks to the possibility offered by this technique for shear wave velocity estimation. New tools and approaches have been developed for surface wave data acquisition and analysis to make the method robust and suitable to complex systems.

More information

--