Short Course Catalogue - Geology
Instructor: Dr George Bertram (Stratigraphic Research Int.)
The course comprises a series of talks on the fundamentals of geology interspersed with short practical exercises and discussions. The objective of the course is to introduce attendees to the science of geology with a particular emphasis on its application for the exploration of hydrocarbons.
Instructor: Mr Eric Barrier (NCOC)
This course describes the tectono-sedimentary and geodynamic evolution of the Tethys and Peri-Tethys domains, including the basics, platforms and orogenic belts that developed since the Late Palaeozoic (post-Hercynian evolution). The investigated region includes Northeastern Africa, Near East, the whole Middle East, Caucasus and Western Central Asia. In the course, the regional evolution is integrated in geodynamic and kinematic context of the openings and closures of the oceanic Palaeo- and then Neo-Tethys domains. One of the main objectives is understanding the tectonic and stratigraphic evolution of the continental Peri-Tethys basins and platforms. We particularly focus on the relationships between tectonic and sedimentation in the basins that developed in these continental domains. The geological history of the main basins and belts are described and discussed at length. The origin and evolution of the major sedimentary basins are more particularly described (timing, rifting, subsidence, inversion, sedimentology, environment, sedimentation, …). The relationships between the main kinematic changes and the major regional tectonic events are debated. The course integrated the most recent data from research projects and literature. It is widely illustrated with palaeotectonic maps and reconstructions, figures, diagrams and pictures. Several case study examples are more detailed and debated.
Instructor: Dr Dave L. Cantrell (Cantrell GeoLogic and Stanford University, USA)
Reservoir quality in carbonate reservoirs is notoriously difficult to understand and predict, and one of the primary reasons for this is the extent and range of processes that occur after deposition. Such post-depositional processes typically extensively modify the original depositional reservoir quality framework of the sediment, and can create, enhance and/or completely destroy porosity and permeability. This workshop provides an overview of the nature and characteristics of diagenesis in carbonates, and then guides participants through a number of case histories that illustrate the impact on diagenesis on reservoir quality in several subsurface successions.
Instructor: Dr Christopher Liner (University of Arkansas)
This course is an overview of carbonates from geology to seismic interpretation, with particular emphasis on karst topography and seismic expression thereof. Carbonate reservoirs represent over 60% of worldwide petroleum reserves, including emerging unconventional reservoirs. Unlike clastics, carbonate mineralogy is relatively simple, while complexity arises from depositional environment lateral variability, pore structure, digenesis and dissolution. These factors influence bulk rock properties and, in turn, seismic response. The course offers a broad overview of carbonate geology and properties that are mappable on a seismic scale as potential hydrocarbon reservoirs. To illustrate key concepts, field sites and case histories are presented from global locations.
Instructor: Laura Galluccio or Thomas Haines (Badley Ashton)
This course presents a journey into pore system evolution within carbonate rocks resulting from the complex interaction between the original depositional facies and subsequent diagenesis, while detailing the intricate path that leads to improved prediction of large-scale reservoir potential. Consideration of the type, geometry and origin (ie. primary or secondary) of pores is vital to understanding the storage capacity and subsequent flow potential of carbonate sediments and hence the resultant reservoir quality distribution, which is key to the successful field development and production.
Instructors: Laura Galluccio and Thomas Haines (Badley Ashton)
A comprehensive 5-day course introducing participants to the world of carbonate rocks from the microscale thin-section observations to the large-scale sedimentological and sequence stratigraphic evaluation. A full immersion into facies analysis, diagenetic processes and pore evolution with the aim towards the understanding and prediction of vertical and lateral variability in reservoir properties. This course highlights the key components important for consideration when building a fully integrated reservoir model; the establishment of the depositional textures, construction of the sequence stratigraphic framework, the post-depositional diagenetic modifications that carbonate deposits are susceptible to and finally the resultant reservoir characterization.
Instructor: Dr Alain-Yves Huc (UPMC - Paris VI University)
With respect to the current genuine public concern regarding the anthropogenic increase of greenhouse gases, a great deal of research and technology development focuses on the capture and underground storage of industrial quantities of CO2. In addition, interest is attracted by the natural processes controlling the carbon cycle and the associated fate of atmospheric CO2. The impact of the natural bio-geological processes affecting the CO2 diluted in the atmosphere at a global scale, needs to be carefully considered in order to assess its role in the current and future state the atmosphere of our planet. As a complement to the study of the involved factors in the modern terrestrial eco-system, the geological perspective provides the opportunity to investigate these processes, their consequences and their kinetics at different time scales.
Instructor: Thomas Haines or Laura Galluccio (Badley Ashton)
This gentle dive into the carbonate world from the microfacies scale to the regional architecture scale will provide the key to describing and interpreting carbonate rocks. From the basic understanding of a carbonate system to the complexities of sequence stratigraphy, this course will equip the participants with the foundations of carbonate sedimentology. Despite the complexity of carbonate sediments, the concepts illustrated in this course will form the fundamental knowledge required for the assessment and prediction of carbonate reservoir characterization.
Instructor: Dr Dirk Nieuwland (NewTec International)
The core of this course is a new powerful method of fault seal prediction and is intended for geologists, geophysicists and reservoir engineers in exploration. The course is based on geomechanics as a sound foundation for structural geological concepts and the behaviour of rocks in the brittle regime. Mechanical rock properties and ways and means to determine these properties form an important element of this course. Following an introduction to geomechanics, the theory of fracturing of brittle, ductile and viscous rocks is treated, illustrated with field examples and case histories. Different deformation mechanisms, based on mechanical rock properties, are treated in relation to realistic geological environments. Cataclasis is introduced as a major sealing mechanism, including a detailed account of the cataclasis process. Palaeo-stress analysis is introduced, together with a new tool, the reactivation circle. The course is very practical and oriented on application. An exercise based on real data forms an important element of the course. Cases requiring the use of numerical models are discussed, but numerical modelling does not form part of the course.
Instructor: Dr. Jon R. Rotzien (Basin Dynamics, LLC)
Deep-water depositional systems form some of the largest petroleum reservoirs on Earth and represent the frontier of oil and gas exploration. However, deep-water depositional systems remain the least well understood because sediment gravity flows, including turbidity currents to hybrid and debris flows, are both infrequent and difficult to predict and monitor, setting them apart from sediment transport processes occurring on mountain tops to shallow marine settings. Therefore, modern seismic data, and, in particular, deep-water outcrops provide prime sources of stratigraphic data used to risk drilling targets and build reservoir models at every phase in the upstream exploration and production process. This course focuses on sub-bed-scale to field-scale architectural elements in deep-water depositional systems and how they affect the main risks in deep-water E&P across the value chain: reservoir presence, deliverability, seals and traps.
Instructor: Dr Janrik van den Berg (Utrecht University and ENRES International)
Knowledge of the physical background of the preserved structures is a prerequisite to understand the mutual relations of structures found in cores that guide us in interpretation solutions and that help us to keep our imagination of the paleo-environment within realistic borders.
First the physical background of sedimentary structures produced by flowing water or waves is treated. These are the “building stones" of any depositional facies or depositional sequence. A proper and accurate interpretation of these in terms of bedforms and flow conditions is essential for understanding the origin and development of any depositional facies or depositional sequence.
After this focus is laid on special structures and vertical successions of structures that characterize fluvial, tidal and transitional fluvial-tidal environments. With transgression and regression, the facies of transitional sediments will move up and down the lower river reach. Recognizing these deposits is important as in sequence stratigraphy they permit a more precise determination of maximum flooding surfaces.
Instructor: Dr George Bertram (Stratigraphic Research Int.)
Seismic data contains a wealth of information if you know where and how to look for it. Using a number of seismic based examples and 'hands on” interpretation exercises from different geological settings worldwide, attendees will learn how to identify different depositional environments, predict facies, (especially reservoir, source rock and seal) measure water depths, calculate subsidence trends, recognize and quantify sea-level changes and, where appropriate, determine the paleo weather conditions. Issues of flattening and datuming to improve the understanding basin evolution will also be addressed.
Instructor: Dr Dave L. Cantrell (Cantrell GeoLogic and Stanford University, USA)
Reservoir quality prediction has long been the ultimate goal of industry geologists, yet few have achieved this in a truly quantitative fashion. This workshop presents a new approach to reservoir quality prediction that involves the integration of a variety of modeling techniques to understand, quantify and predict the geological processes that control reservoir quality. Since initial reservoir quality is established at the time of deposition, numerical process models are used to predict initial reservoir quality; diagenetic process models are then used to modify these initial results and ultimately produce a quantitative and geologically-based prediction of present-day subsurface reservoir quality.
Instructors: Prof. Dr Stephen Tyson and Dr Ing Sebastian Hörning (Universiti Teknologi Brunei and The University of Queensland)
The course will show the attendees how to test for linear spatial dependence and introduce the concepts of non-linear geostatistics. Attendees will develop an excel spreadsheet and a python notebook which can be used for spatial data analysis and non-linear stochastic simulation. Existing geostatistics algorithms based on the kriging matrix can be shown to underestimate the connectivity of extreme values because they assume a linear spatial dependence model. Moreover, the estimation of uncertainty based on these techniques uses the kriging variance, which is not dependent on the values of the spatially distributed variable. It can also be shown that these uncertainty estimate are often implausible. This course will explain the reasons why most spatial variables in geoscience do not have a linear spatial dependence, even after monotonic transformations, and what the impact of this in the estimation of petrophysical properties. The course will show the attendees how to test for linear spatial dependence and introduce the concepts of non-linear geostatistics. Attendees will develop an Excel spreadsheet and a python notebook which can be used for spatial data analysis and non-linear stochastic simulation.
Instructor: Prof. Dr Alexei Milkov (Colorado School of Mines, USA)
The course enables participants to transform qualitative geological descriptions of plays and prospects into technically robust quantitative success-case and risked volumetric models. Obtained learnings will help participants evaluate probabilities of success (PoS) for exploration plays, segments, prospects, wells and portfolios and to assess the range of petroleum volumes in exploration projects. Examples and case studies come from both conventional and unconventional plays, prospects and wells around the world. The learning objectives are achieved through well-illustrated lectures, numerous hands-on exercises and active class discussions. We will cover:
- Play-based exploration;
- Assessment of success-case volumes;
- Assessment of exploration risks/PoS;
- Post-mortem analysis.
Instructor: Dr Bjorn Wygrala (Schlumberger)
The term “Petroleum Systems” and the technology “Basin and Petroleum Systems Modelling” will be introduced by showing applications in areas with critical exploration challenges, including salt basins and thrustbelts. Technical breakthroughs in the last 10-15 years have been the extension of the technology from 2D to 3D, and the ability to perform multi-phase petroleum migration modelling using different methods in high resolution geological models. This enables temperature, pressure and petroleum property predictions to be made with higher levels of accuracy and in the most complex geological environments such as in the sub-salt or in thrustbelts. Case studies will be used with live software presentations to illustrate key points. Applications of the technology will range from frontier exploration in which large areas with only sparse data are screened, to detailed assessments of exploration risks in structurally complex areas, to petroleum resource assessments of yet-to-find oil and gas.
Instructor: Prof. Dr Michael Poppelreiter (University Technology Petronas)
The most universal, comprehensive and concise descriptive documents on oil and gas wells are well logs. They impact the work of almost every oil field group from geologists to roustabouts to bankers. Familiarity with the applications of well logs is therefore essential for people forging their careers in the oil business. The instructor uses a core-based approach to help participants develop a good grounding in understanding and applying well logging techniques. General principles of physics are presented to explain the functioning of modern logging tools. Wherever possible, the physics of logging measurements is related to everyday tools and applications. Cross-plotting and reconnaissance techniques quickly and efficiently discriminate between water, oil and gas. Error minimization techniques, applicable only to computerized log analysis, produce optimal results. Participants benefit from realistic experience by working in teams on a comprehensive log interpretation exercise.
Instructor: Prof. Dr Richard Swarbrick (Swarbrick GeoPressure Consultancy)
All wells drilled require a pre-drill prediction of pore fluid and fracture pressures which defines the drilling window. This course explains the objectives, methods and uncertainties of prediction, based on extensive global experience. The necessary understanding of the geological/geophysical context of abnormal pressures leading to standard algorithms will be provided. Part of the challenge is terminology and contrasting display methods of geoscience and operations/drilling groups. Both approaches are necessary and investigated in the interactive exercises which will form an essential component of the course.
Instructor: Prof. Peter Lloyd (Honorary Professor)
The course has been designed for geoscientists, engineers and other technical staff who want to analyze and integrate image and dip data with other logs and seismic to enhance their understanding of exploration plays and field development. It leans heavily on worked class examples and case studies. Instead of interpreting image and dip data in isolation, the course shows how they can be used in conjunction with cores, other logs, modern depositional analogues, outcrop studies and hi-resolution seismic data to refine reservoir models.
Instructor: Dr Dirk Nieuwland (NewTec International)
Unconventional hydrocarbon systems require unconventional approaches to decide on drilling locations and development techniques. The information contained in natural fracture systems can be used to support the drilling and well stimulation technique for the development of unconventional hydrocarbon systems such as shale gas. This short course is based on geomechanics as a technique that can be used to understand and to develop unconventional hydrocarbon systems such as shale gas systems, and fractured crystalline basement, where conventional logging and seismic systems are inadequate.
Instructor: Dr Tim Wynn (AGR TRACS International Ltd)
Reservoir modelling for field development planning is a well-accepted process but its application to fractured reservoirs requires specific considerations which are less commonly known. This course describes a practical methodology for building 3D static (“geocellular”) reservoir models for naturally fractured reservoirs using standard modelling software, covering such considerations. The issues addressed include the integration of log, core and seismic data, the sourcing and application of in situ stress data, the process of defining and building the static reservoir model itself, and the creation of output in a form appropriate for dynamic modelling using dual porosity reservoir simulators where appropriate. More complex workflows using discrete fracture networks will also be summarised, as will general issues of fracture description, uncertainty-handling and volumetrics.
Instructor: Prof. Dorrik Stow (Heriot-Watt University)
Sandstones deposited in deep marine environments form important hydrocarbon reservoirs in many basins around the world. Interbedded mudstones can be important as source rocks, as well as acting as barriers, baffles and seals. Deepwater reservoirs are currently the principal target for oil and gas exploration, with over 1600 existing turbidite fields and plays.
Instructors: Dr Mark Bentley (AGR TRACS International) and Prof. Philip Ringrose (Equinor)
This short course will provide an introduction to reservoir model design, covering the following main design elements:
- Model purpose;
- The rock model;
- The property model;
- Model scaling;
- Handling uncertainty.