Short Course Catalogue - Petrophysics

 

Petrophysics - Rock Physics

Rock Physics

Applied Microfacies

Instructor: Prof. Dr Michael Poppelreiter (University Technology Petronas)

Hands-on microfacies characterization using industry data sets. Analysis: mineralogy, components, pore types, diagenesis. Participants are instructed on how to capture observations such that patterns and rules might be detected. The course encourages participants to think of processes and products during thin section characterization. Industry data sets are used to illustrate the use of microfacies characterization to help solve operational issues of carbonate fields. Production increase is demanded. Wells (fully cored) show contrary production behavior. The stratigraphy is ‘layer cake’ and both wells are perforated in the highest perm interval of a few meters thick. Thin sections are linked with petrophysical data, openhole logs and production data. Course participants are encouraged to use thin section descriptions to develop a conceptual model for permeability based on a depositional model architecture based on the investigation of available this sections.

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Digital Rock Technology

Instructor: Prof. Mark Knackstedt (FEI Lithicon)

Digital rock technology offers promise to overcome limitations of conventional core flooding – in particular, sensitivity to coring, core preservation, handling and preparation procedures. This course will provide an in-depth description of digital rock analysis techniques with an emphasis on the fundamentals, tools and practical methods utilized in this workflow. Advanced methods and current limitations will also be discussed. The course will then highlight how this technology can aid the geoscientist and reservoir engineer today by complementing traditional measurements and using the results intelligently to predict and interpret field-scale recovery processes. We describe examples where reconciliation and integration of the different types of data from a fundamental understanding of the pore scale has added value. In particular, the work is used to offer fast turnaround times, aided in our understanding of unconventional reservoir core material and to explain uncertainties and trends from laboratory measurements (e.g., issues with heterogeneity, representative elemental volume, wettability, distribution of remaining oil saturation, EOR processes). We conclude with a discussion on how to extend this technology for reliable prediction of petrophysical & SCAL data along continuous lengths of core material and to integrate the data with other forms of data at increasingly larger scales (log characterization, geomodels and ultimately reservoir simulators).

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Explorational Rock Physics and Seismic Reservoir Prediction

Instructors: Dr Per Avseth (Independent Consultant) and Prof. Dr Tor Arne Johansen (University of Bergen)

The field of rock physics represents the link between qualitative geologic parameters and quantitative geophysical measurements. Increasingly over the last decade, rock physics stands out as a key technology in petroleum geophysics, as it has become an integral part of quantitative seismic interpretation. Ultimately, the application of rock physics tools can reduce exploration risk and improve reservoir forecasting in the petroleum industry.

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Rock Physics and Computational Geophysics

Instructor: PhD José M. Carcione (OGS)

This course presents the fundamentals of physics and numerical simulation of wave propagation in anisotropic, anelastic and porous media, including the analogy between acoustic waves (in the general sense) and electromagnetic (EM) waves. The emphasis is on geophysical applications for hydrocarbon exploration, but researchers in the fields of earthquake seismology, rock physics, and material science. Moreover, the course illustrates the use of seismic and EM modelling, with an account of the numerical algorithms for computing the synthetic seismograms and radargrams, including applications in the field of geophysical prospecting, seismology and rock physics, such as evaluation of methane hydrate content, upscaling techniques, detection of overpressure, Antarctic and permafrost exploration, exploration of the Earths deep crust, time-lapse for monitoring of CO2 injection, etc.

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Petrophysics - Geomechanics

Geomechanics

Geophysics Under Stress: Geomechanical Applications of Seismic and Borehole Acoustic Waves

Instructor: Dr Colin Sayers (Schlumberger)

The state of stress within the earth has a profound effect on the propagation of seismic and borehole acoustic waves, and this leads to many important applications of elastic waves for solving problems in petroleum geomechanics. The purpose of this course is to provide an overview of the sensitivity of elastic waves in the earth to the in-situ stress.

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Applications of 3D and 4D Geomechanical Models in Petroleum Exploration and Production

Instructor: Dr Jorg Herwanger (MP Geomechanics)

Three-dimensional geomechanical models are becoming frequently used to assess the state of stress inside the Earth. Knowledge of the stress-state in a reservoir and the surrounding rock allows assessing the risk of reservoir compaction, wellbore failure, sanding, breach of seal integrity, fault re-activation amongst other issues, and allows the design of mitigation measures for these issues. Three-dimensional seismic data and inversion models can be used in building geomechanical models and time-lapse (4D) seismic data provide a means of calibrating the dynamic behaviour of reservoir geomechanical models. The purpose of this course is to provide an overview of currently available workflows to build and run calibrated 3D and 4D geomechanical models, maximizing the use of seismic data. By attending the course, participants will deepen their insight into each of the elements that comprise a 3D and 4D geomechanical model. Special attention is given to the way that seismic data assists in the process, what other data sources are required, how to calibrate geomechanical models, and finally, how to interpret geomechanical models for a range of applications.

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Conduits and Seals in Hydrocarbon Reservoirs: A Geomechanical Approach

Instructor: Dr Dirk Nieuwland (NewTec International)

Flow of oil and gas through porous reservoir rock is controlled by the permeability of the reservoir. In the simplest case this is a single permeability system that is completely controlled by the rock properties of the reservoir. The presence of faults and/or fractures complicates the flow by creating a dual porosity/permeability system when open fractures are present, or by creating barriers to flow or even reservoir compartmentalization when sealing faults or fractures are present. In this short course the origin of faults and fractures and their mechanical properties will be discussed in a framework of geo-mechanics. Understanding the physical processes of fault and fracture formation enables the development of predictive models even in structurally complicated reservoirs. A combination of theory, case histories and exercises will be used to familiarize the participants of this short course with the subjects. The nature of a short course is such that an full in-depth treatment of the mechanics is not possible due to lack of time, the course emphasis will therefore be on informative case histories. Exercises will make part of the course but in view of the available time need to be relatively short.

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Estimating Rock Mechanical Properties from Geological and Geophysical Measurements

Instructors: Richard A. Plumb, PhD (Plumb Geomechanics, LLC)

The purpose of this course is to inform those geoscientists and engineers, interested in geomechanics modeling, about relationships between rock's mechanical properties and its mineral composition and texture. It demonstrates how this knowledge may be combined with specific geological and geophysical data to construct 1D-to-3D geomechanical models. The course starts with a review of deformation mechanisms that operate in sedimentary basins over the life of a reservoir from deposition to exploitation. This establishes a link between sedimentology and the spatial variation of rock mechanical properties. Next we review laboratory methods for measuring mechanical properties (elastic, yield, failure and post failure properties) and present experimental data that link porosity, clay content, clay mineralogy, grain size, grain-to-grain contacts to rock deformation mechanisms and Mohr-Coulomb failure parameters. We conclude by describing how this information can be used to populate mechanical property models. Case studies will illustrate how this body of knowledge has evolved to the current state of the art in predicting deformation of sedimentary materials.

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Geomechanics for Energy-related Applications

Instructors: Prof. Dr Lyesse Laloui (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology) and Dr Alessio Ferrari (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology)

Geomechanics with multiphase and non-isothermal conditions are found in numerous energy-related engineering applications, such as petroleum engineering, nuclear waste storage engineering, unconventional energy resources and CO2 geological sequestration. Those applications require an understanding of the behaviour of the involved geomaterials (soils, rocks, shales) and an increased ability to predict their behaviours in variable situations. The course provides an insight on modern trends in geomechanics for dealing with geomaterials in multiphase and non-isothermal conditions. The course introduces the basic concepts for the characterisation of the materials and their numerical modelling.

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Oilfield Geomechanics: Application to Drilling, Completions, Reservoir, Production, Geology and Geophysics

Instructors: Dr David Wiprut (Baker Hughes, a GE Company - Houston, USA)

This course covers the principles of in-situ stress and rock mechanics and their applications. We introduce applications in complex wellbores, in reservoirs that are faulted, fractured, depleted, or compacting, and in unconventional reservoirs. Concepts are reinforced and engagement is ensured with 18 class exercises and many more class discussion questions. The course is composed of five sections: 1) Introduction to Geomechanics; 2) Drilling; 3) Completions Engineering; 4) Geology and Geophysics; and 5) Reservoir Engineering.

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The Contemporary State of stress in Sedimentary Basins: Observations and Modeling

Instructors: Richard A. Plumb, PhD (Plumb Geomechanics, LLC)

The purpose of this course is to inform those geoscientists and engineers, interested in geomechanics modeling, about the variation of principal stresses in sedimentary basins and physical processes that govern them. The course starts with a review of basic concepts including: the stress tensor, total stress, effective stress, principal stress, stress regimes, and Mohr's circle. Following is a review borehole techniques used to measure earth stresses in uncased and cased wells. Next, the course explores a global data set comprising more than 1000 measurements of: the least principal stress, overburden stress, pore pressure, and lithology. Global data reveal the dependence of stress on: basin setting, pore pressure, and lithology. Detailed measurements made in tight sandstone and shale reservoirs show that bed-to-bed stress variations are associated with changes in lithology and current rock properties (coefficient of friction, Poisson's ratio, and Young's modulus). Finally, we present physical models that explain the measured stress variations and that can be used to calibrate stress models. Limits of the current technology and methodologies will be discussed and promising new developments will be identified.

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